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According to some estimates, 40 percent of the population suffers with some form of low thyroid function. Women, especially older women, are the most susceptible group for developing hypothyroidism. People who are elderly or who have other existing autoimmune diseases – like type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and celiac disease, for example – are also at a higher risk.
Your thyroid needs iodine to work properly and produce enough TH for your body's needs. Don't get enough iodine, and you run the risk of hypothyroidism or a goiter (a thyroid gland that becomes enlarged to make up for the shortage of thyroid hormone). Most Americans have no problem getting enough iodine, since table salt is iodized—but if you're on a low-sodium diet (as an increasing number of Americans are for their heart health) or follow a vegan diet (more on that later), then you may need to up your intake from other sources.
Much of the iodine in the average American diet comes from dairy products, according to a 2008 study by researchers from the Food and Drug Administration. But our consumption of dairy has been on the decline for decades: During the years between 1970 and 2012, there's been a 60-gallon drop, largely because we're drinking milk less often, say the researchers.
In other words, taking supplements and herbs alone is usually not the solution. Plus, while nutritional supplements can help, one must remember that different people will need to take different types of supplements, take different dosages, etc. Plus the quality of the supplements you take is important, and the truth is, many supplements are of low quality. So just taking a general thyroid support formula is usually not the answer to restoring your health back to normal. Doing so not only can worsen your symptoms, but often times taking this approach will be a complete waste of money. In most cases it takes a combination of different factors to restore one’s health back to normal. This includes eating well, doing a good job of managing stress, getting sufficient sleep, improving the health of the gut, minimizing your exposure to environmental toxins, etc.
Do a little Googling, and you might turn up a page or two claiming that cruciferous vegetables can cause thyroid troubles. The truth is a little murkier. While it's true that these veggies contain compounds called glucosinolates, which might interfere with your body's production of thyroid hormones in high amounts, it's pretty unlikely that they'll harm your thyroid if you're eating normal-size servings. One case report in the New England Journal of Medicine highlighted the story of an 88-year-old woman who showed up to the ER with hypothyroidism after eating about 2 or 3 pounds of bok choy a day—but, as Ilic points out, "that's not a normal amount."
Many types of seaweed are chockfull of iodine, but the amount can vary wildly, says Mira Ilic, RD, a registered dietician at the Cleveland Clinic. According to the National Institutes of Health, a 1-gram portion can contain anywhere from 11% to a whopping 1,989% of your percent daily value. But since seaweed is especially high in iodine, you shouldn't start eating sushi every day of the week. Too much iodine can be just as harmful to your thyroid as too little by triggering (or worsening) hypothyroidism. To get seaweed's big benefits without going overboard, Cynthia Sass, MPH, RD, and Health's contributing nutrition editor advises sticking to one fresh seaweed salad per week (in addition to sushi), and steering clear of seaweed teas and supplements.
There are also certain risk factors for hypothyroidism including radioactive iodine or anti-thyroid medications for hyperthyroidism, lithium, Congenital disease or tumors on your pituitary gland, pregnancy, miscarriage, premature delivery and/or preeclampsia, Iodine deficiency, autoimmune disease, enlarged thyroid glands or goiters, and high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.
If you are diagnosed with hypothyroidism, it may sound horrible, but you could be in it for life. This means you'll need to change your diet and lifestyle entirely. There must be a conscious and consistent plan for your everyday intake of food to prevent flares of symptoms that could disrupt your everyday routine. If you adhere strongly to your diet plan, then there shouldn't be any worries about symptom attacks later on.
Iodine intake often isn’t readily apparent on a dietary recall since the amount in foods is largely dependent on levels in the soil and added salt. However, Schneider says, “Clients taking iodine tablets are a red flag. Frequent intake of foods such as seaweed or an avoidance of all iodized salt may serve as signs that further exploration is needed.”
Other causes of hypothyroidism include surgical removal of the thyroid (usually for cancer), radiation therapy of the head and neck, or complications of medical therapies for hyperthyroidism. (Patients with overactive thyroids are often treated with radioactive iodine or anti-thyroid medications that reduce thyroid functioning. These effects can be extensive and permanent, and thyroid supplementation is often required flowing these interventions.) Certain medications can worsen or promote hypothyroidism or interfere with thyroid replacement therapy. One such drug is lithium, used for treating psychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorder.
It’s commonly believed that hypothyroidism is due to insufficient iodine, but this isn’t true. Dr. Kharrazian states that if you have Hashimoto’s, taking supplemental iodine is like throwing gasoline on a fire, so eschew iodine supplements and iodized salt. Primary sources of iodine: sea vegetables and seafood. Secondary sources: eggs, asparagus, lima beans, mushrooms, spinach, sesame seeds, summer squash, Swiss chard, and garlic.
Pill Systems: Natural ingredients combined together to help maintain the functioning of the thyroid gland are available in the form of pill systems. A thyroid supplement called 'thyromine' is used to increase production, thereby combating hypothyroidism. Thyromine supplements are made from natural and herbal ingredients, such as Nori (seaweed rich in iodine) and thyroid bovine powder (maintains functioning of endocrine system).
You may have read that green, leafy veggies like kale, bok choy, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts can make hypothyroidism worse. But before you keep reading, ask yourself a question: Do you live in the United States? That’s key — because if you do, you likely don’t need to worry about these cancer-fighting veggies messing with your hypothyroidism management. (7)
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Please Note: The material on this site is provided for informational purposes only and is not medical advice. Always consult your physician before beginning any diet or exercise program.
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