Many drugs have been known to cause this form of the disease, but several are considered primary culprits. They are mainly anti-inflammatories, anticonvulsants, or drugs used to treat chronic conditions such as heart disease, thyroid disease, hypertension (high blood pressure), and neuropsychiatric disorders. The three drugs mostly to blame for drug-induced lupus are:
According to the Lupus Foundation of America, approximately 1.5 million people in the U.S. have lupus. People of African, Asian, and Native American descent are more likely to develop lupus than are Caucasians. Although it can occur in both men and women, 90% of people diagnosed with the disease are women. Women of childbearing age (14 to 45 years old) are most often affected and as many as 1 in 250 people may develop lupus.
Nitrogen in the blood in the form of urea, the metabolic product of the breakdown of amino acids used for energy production. The normal concentration is about 8 to 18 mg/dL. The level of urea in the blood provides a rough estimate of kidney function. Blood urea nitrogen levels may be increased in the presence of dehydration, decreased renal function, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, or treatment with drugs such as steroids or tetracyclines.
To unravel which people with positive ANA tests actually have lupus, additional blood work can be done. Doctors look for other potentially troublesome antibodies, so they will test for anti-double-stranded DNA and anti-Smith antibodies. These tests are less likely to be positive unless a patient truly has lupus. However, a person who has negative test results could still have lupus, even though this is not so in the case of ANA tests.
Scientists have suspected for years that infections from bacteria, viruses, and other toxins were likely to blame for the development of conditions like lupus. And while they have not been able to identify one single culprit, they have found strong correlations with a number of bacteria and viruses. For example, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been shown to trigger lupus in some individuals.4
From the time we are kiddos, we are told that we should exercise and eat right in order to grow up big and strong, right? Well instead, we spent many-a-weeknight-dinners pushing around the peas and other veggies lying ominously on our plates, in the hopes that they will magically disappear, or hiding them under the mashed potatoes to make it look so. Then, making those stink faces at our parents, when we hear that we are having fish for dinner (unless, of course, its the breaded and fried unidentifiable kind.) As we grew, many of us -but not all of us- have had taste buds and/or common sense that grew and matured simultaneously with our bodies. We have since learned to like, perhaps even love our veggies and those little fishies we once abhorred. For others… not so much. Back to top
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multisystem inflammatory disease that is often difficult to diagnose. Before the diagnosis can be established, four of 11 clinical and laboratory criteria must be met. Antinuclear antibody titer is the primary laboratory test used to diagnose systemic lupus erythematosus. Because of the low prevalence of the disease in primary care populations, the antinuclear antibody titer has a low predictive value in patients without typical clinical symptoms. Therefore, as specified by the American College of Rheumatology, this titer should be obtained only in patients with unexplained involvement of two or more organ systems. Pa tients with an antinuclear antibody titer of 1:40 and characteristic multiorgan system involvement can be diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus without additional testing; however, patients with an antibody titer of 1:40 who fail to meet full clinical criteria should undergo additional testing, including tests for antibody to doublestranded DNA antigen and antibody to Sm nuclear antigen. While an antinuclear antibody titer of less than 1:40 usually rules out systemic lupus erythematosus, patients with persistent, characteristic multisystem involvement may be evaluated for possible antinuclear antibody–negative disease.
ANA screening yields positive results in many connective tissue disorders and other autoimmune diseases, and may occur in normal individuals. Subtypes of antinuclear antibodies include anti-Smith and anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies (which are linked to SLE) and anti-histone antibodies (which are linked to drug-induced lupus). Anti-dsDNA antibodies are highly specific for SLE; they are present in 70% of cases, whereas they appear in only 0.5% of people without SLE. The anti-dsDNA antibody titers also tend to reflect disease activity, although not in all cases. Other ANA that may occur in people with SLE are anti-U1 RNP (which also appears in systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease), SS-A (or anti-Ro) and SS-B (or anti-La; both of which are more common in Sjögren's syndrome). SS-A and SS-B confer a specific risk for heart conduction block in neonatal lupus.
Fatigue is different from drowsiness. Drowsiness is feeling the need to sleep. Fatigue is a lack of energy and motivation. Drowsiness and apathy (a feeling of not caring about what happens) can be symptoms that go along with fatigue. Fatigue can be a normal and important response to physical activity, emotional stress, boredom, or lack of sleep. Fatigue is a common symptom, and it is usually not due to a serious disease. But it can be a sign of a more serious mental or physical condition. When fatigue is not relieved by enough sleep, good nutrition, or a low-stress environment, it should be evaluated by your doctor.
Avoid foods that cause food sensitivities or allergies. You must be tested for this in order to be sure of your bodies specific needs. Some tests do not indicate food sensitivities (such as to sugar, salt, etc.), so keep a journal of your body's reactions to foods. Eat a varied diet, rich with alkaline, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory foods. Always clean your food well, (including organic foods).
Lupus, also known as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or SLE, is a complex disease that can be difficult to diagnose. It affects many areas of body including the joints, skin and kidneys. More than 200,000 people in the U.S. are diagnosed with lupus each year. Like other autoimmune diseases, in lupus, cells essentially make the bad decision to attack the body’s own cells.
Most patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (unless they’re otherwise advised by their rheumatologist) should be taking an oral antimalarial drug — medications originally used to prevent a malaria infection, but that have been found to help with lupus symptoms, says Dr. Kramer. The antimalarial hydroxychloroquine helps prevent lupus flares, minimizes joint inflammation, and controls fever, fatigue, pleurisy (inflammation of the sac surrounding the lungs), and pericarditis (inflammation of the lining around the heart). The drug is also “the backbone of therapy” for most skin rashes associated with lupus, says Kramer. Mouth sores may also be alleviated with this drug. Chloroquine and quinacrine are other antimalarials drugs used to treat lupus. (3)
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