According to the Lupus Foundation of America, approximately 1.5 million people in the U.S. have lupus. People of African, Asian, and Native American descent are more likely to develop lupus than are Caucasians. Although it can occur in both men and women, 90% of people diagnosed with the disease are women. Women of childbearing age (14 to 45 years old) are most often affected and as many as 1 in 250 people may develop lupus.
Recent research has found an association between certain people with lupus (especially those with lupus nephritis) and an impairment in degrading neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These were due to DNAse1 inhibiting factors, or NET protecting factors in people's serum, rather than abnormalities in the DNAse1 itself.[65] DNAse1 mutations in lupus have so far only been found in some Japanese cohorts.[66]
If cyclophosphamide doesn’t work for patients with lupus nephritis, they now have the option of trying another drug, and more options are being tested in clinical trials, says Dr. Caricchio. For example, doctors may use CellCept (mycophenolate mofetil), Imuran (azathioprine), or Restasis (cyclosporine). Prograf (tacrolimus) may also be an effective option for lupus nephritis, according to study data appearing in the January 2016 edition of Autoimmunity Reviews. (5)
The symptoms involved in CREST syndrome are associated with the generalized form of the disease Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). CREST is an acronym for the clinical features that are seen in a patient with this disease. The “C” stands for calcinosis, where calcium deposits form under the skin on the fingers or other areas of the body. The “R”, stands for Raynaud’s phenomenon, spasm of blood vessels in the fingers or toes in response to cold or stress. The “E” represents esophageal dysmotility, which can cause difficulty in swallowing. The “S” is for sclerodactyly, tightening of the skin causing the fingers to bend. Finally, the letter “T” is for telangiectasia, dilated vessels on the skin of the fingers, face, or inside of the mouth.
Blood and urine tests. The antinuclear antibody (ANA) test can show if your immune system is more likely to make the autoantibodies of lupus. Most people with lupus test positive for ANA. But, a positive ANA does not always mean you have lupus. If you test positive for ANA, your doctor will likely order more tests for antibodies that are specific to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
SLE is associated with defects in apoptotic clearance, and the damaging effects caused by apoptotic debris. Early apoptotic cells express “eat-me” signals, of cell-surface proteins such as phosphatidylserine, that prompt immune cells to engulf them. Apoptotic cells also express “find-me” signals, to attract macrophages and dendritic cells. When apoptotic material is not removed correctly by phagocytes, they are captured instead by antigen-presenting cells, which leads to development of antinuclear antibodies.[4]
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate. This blood test determines the rate at which red blood cells settle to the bottom of a tube in an hour. A faster than normal rate may indicate a systemic disease, such as lupus. The sedimentation rate isn't specific for any one disease. It may be elevated if you have lupus, an infection, another inflammatory condition or cancer.

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